How to Steal by Double Paying a Vendor

Day 12 of 30 Days of Fraud

The Theft

Fraudsters can steal by double paying a vendor. In this article, I show you how duplicate payments sometimes end up in an employee’s pocket and how to prevent this fraud.

John, an accounts payable clerk, works for Zoom Inc. Last year, he accidentally sent two checks to the same company for the same invoice. To recover the second disbursement, John called the vendor, and they quickly returned the extra payment. While he was embarrassed about his mistake, he realized that had he not recovered the check, no one would have noticed.

steal by double paying a vendor

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Steal by Double Paying the Vendor

John has the itch to buy a new BMW. He saved some money, but he needs more–much more. Then he remembers the accidental double payment and has an epiphany. Yeah…that might work.

John intentionally pays the company’s vendor, River Merchants, twice for the same invoice of $47,540. The checks are signed electronically by computer, so no one is physically inspecting the checks or invoices. Liz, John’s coworker, mails all vendor payments. Consequently, he can’t steal the second check before mailing.

Liz mails the checks. The next day John calls River Merchants saying, “Sorry, but I just realized I sent two payments to you for the same invoice. Would you please return the second check? My address is…”

John receives the second check Monday morning. Now he converts the check to cash by opening a bank account in the name of River Merchants and depositing the check. John is the authorized check signer on the account, so he writes a check to himself. He’s soon cruising the boulevard in his new red Beemer.

The Weakness

No one is monitoring the accounts payable process. While the company did implement the policy of having a second person mail the checks, no one is reviewing check disbursements for double payments.

The Fix

Periodically download the check register to Excel; you only need the following columns:

  1. Vendor name
  2. Check number
  3. Invoice number
  4. Check amount (amount paid)

Sort the payments by vendor name; then scan the list for same amounts paid to the same vendor. If you see payments to the same vendor with the same invoice number and the same dollar amount, then dig deeper. (Accounts payable software should not allow the processing of two checks with the same invoice number–even so, some systems allow overrides; alternatively, the fraudster may bypass this restriction by altering the invoice number.) If it appears that a double payment has occurred, call the vendor to see if a refund has been issued.

Obviously, some payments to vendors should be for the same amount (such as rent)–these should be ignored for this test.

Sometimes, in performing this test, you will find double payments–made by mistake–that the vendor has not returned. The first time I did this test, I found such a payment for over $75,000.

More Fraud Prevention Tips

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Auditing Payables and Expenses: The Why and How Guide

Here's an overview of common payable and expense risks and how to audit them

Are you auditing payables and expenses? In this post, we’ll answer questions such as, “how should we test accounts payable?” and “should I perform fraud-related expense procedures?” We’ll also take a look at common risks and how to respond to them.

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Auditing Accounts Payable and Expenses — An Overview

What is a payable? It’s the amount a company owes for services rendered or goods received. Suppose the company you are auditing receives $2,000 in legal services in the last week of December, but the law firm sends the related invoice in January. The company owes $2,000 as of December 31, 2016. The services were provided, but the payment was not made until after the period-end. Consequently, the company records the $2,000 in its year-end payables. 

In determining whether payables exist, I like to ask, “if the company closed down at midnight on the last day of the month, would it have a legal obligation to pay for a service or good?” If the answer is yes, then record the payable—even if the invoice is received after the month-end. Has the service been received by month-end? Have the goods been received by month-end? If yes and the company has not paid for the service or good by month-end, then the company has a payable.

In this post, we will cover the following:

  • Primary accounts payable and expenses assertions
  • Accounts payable and expense walkthroughs
  • Directional risk for accounts payable and expenses
  • Primary risks for accounts payable and expenses
  • Common accounts payable and expenses control deficiencies
  • Risk of material misstatement for accounts payable and expenses
  • Substantive procedures for accounts payable and expenses
  • Typical accounts payable and expense work papers