I find that many CPAs aren’t aware of the AICPA Consulting Standards. So, here’s a post about them.
Are you ever asked to perform an atypical engagement (e.g., creating a schedule of water losses for a city)–and then you wonder “what professional standards should I follow?”
Audit standards? No, you’re not opining on anything.
Maybe the compilation and review standards? No, a schedule is not a financial statement.
How about agreed upon procedures? Well, no again–AUPs normally include tests and conclusions.
We need another arrow in our quiver!
Most CPAs are familiar with compilation and review standards (Statement on Standards for Accounting and Review Services – SSARS) and audit standards (Statement on Auditing Standards – SAS) and even attestation standards (Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements – SSAEs – commonly used for agreed upon procedures), but many are not familiar with the consulting standards (Statement on Standards for Consulting Services – SSCS).
I’m not really sure. But I seldom see consulting standard CPE classes. Yet many services are subject to this guidance.
AICPA Consulting Standards Primer
You might call the AICPA Consulting Standards the CPA’s swiss army knife.
What services fall under the consulting standards?
The consulting standards specifically address six areas:
- Consultations – e.g., reviewing a business plan
- Advisory services – e.g., assistance with strategic planning
- Implementation services – e.g., assistance with a merger
- Transaction services – e.g., litigation services
- Staff and other support services – e.g., controllership services
- Product services – e.g., providing packaged training services
CPAs often provide consulting services such as the following:
- Consultations with regard to complex transactions
- Fraud investigation services
- Internal control services
- Bankruptcy services
- Divorce settlement services
- Controllership services
- Business plan preparation
- Cash management
- Software selection
- Business disposition planning
When can I use the consulting standards?
Usually when the information will not be provided to a third party.
When performing work under the consulting standards, you are not attesting (providing comfort) on the work performed. Usually, you need to follow the SASs, SSARS, or SSAEs if you are attesting (providing comfort to an outside party).
Characteristics of a Consulting Engagement
- Generally nonrecurring
- Requires a CPA with specialized knowledge and skills
- More interaction with client
- Generally performed for the client (usually, no third party sees the information)
Consulting Work Paper Requirements
Consulting work paper requirements are minimal. Nevertheless, documentation is always wise.
The understanding with the client can be oral or in writing (I recommend the latter).
The consulting standards do not require the CPA to prepare work papers, but you should do so anyway – the work papers are the link between your work and your report. Also the general standards of the profession, contained in the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct, apply to all services performed by members. The general standards state:
Sufficient Relevant Data. Obtain sufficient relevant data to afford a reasonable basis for conclusions or recommendations in relation to any professional services performed.
The report content and format are up to you and your client.
No Opinion or Accountant’s Report
For consulting engagements, the CPA does not issue an opinion or any other attestation report (e.g., accountant’s report on agreed-upon procedures ).
Subject to Peer Review?
Are products created using the Consulting Standards subject to peer review? No.
Where Can I Find the AICPA Consulting Standards?
You can see the consulting standards here.
Photos above are courtesy of iStockphoto.com.