Well the public brouhaha between NASBA and the AICPA seems to have settled down since the AICPA issued the Financial Reporting Framework for Small- to Medium-Sized Entities (FRF for SME). I won’t say they’re holding hands now, but at least the discussion has simmered.
Here’s a Q&A to help you digest some of the salient points of FRF for SME.
What is FRF for SMEs?
It’s an other comprehensive basis of accounting (OCBOA) that can be used as an alternative to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) as issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board.
When can FRF for SME be used?
Who created FRF for SME?
What is the size of FRF for SME?
A little over 200 pages.
What is the size of GAAP?
Thousands of pages. (I have heard more than 20,000 pages. Correct me if I’m wrong.)
How often will FRF for SME change?
About once every three to four years. (That’s one of the beauties of it.) Stability? Yes.
Why was FRF for SME created?
GAAP had become too complex for small- to medium-sized private businesses, driving up the costs of creating GAAP-compliant financial statements. Existing OCBOA (e.g., modified-cash basis) lacked standardization.
Does FRF for SME define a small- to medium-sized entity? Is there a dollar threshold?
No. It’s subjective. There is no dollar threshold.
Is “FRF for SME” GAAP?
No. (It is not little GAAP. It is not GAAP at all – not intended to be.)
Can entities with debt covenants requiring GAAP use FRF for SMEs?
No. But they can see if the lender will amend the agreement.
Can financial statements created using FRF for SME be audited, reviewed or compiled?
Yes. Yes. Yes.
What are some of the characteristics of companies that might use FRF for SME?
- Not a public company
- No regulatory requirements for GAAP
- Individuals with controlling ownership also manage the company
What entities should not use FRF for SME?
- Those with complex transactions
Is FRF for SME principles-based?
Yes. Use the flexibility and disclose the policies used.
Do the FRF for SME financial statements look like GAAP statements?
Yes. This is a downside (at least to me). I do think a user might mistakenly believe the financial statements are GAAP. You will need to clearly disclose that FRF for SME is being used. Also your opinion or SSARS report will refer to FRF for SME (rather than GAAP).
What are some key points of FRF for SME?
- No comprehensive income
- Investments will be at historical cost (market value used when held-for-sale)
- Derivatives (think swaps) are not recognized on the balance sheet (only disclosed); no hedge accounting
- Goodwill amortized over the same period as that used for tax purposes or 15 years
- Intangibles (all) will be amortized over their economic life
- Income taxes recognized using taxes payable method (what you owe at period-end) or the deferred income tax method (as GAAP requires)
- No requirement to accrue uncertain tax positions (no FIN 46)
- Leases will be recognized as operating or capital leases (FASB’s presently proposed lease standard will require all leases of more than 12 months to be recognized as a liability; expect to see the FASB lease standard approved in early 2014)
- Policy choice to consolidate subsidiaries or account for them using the equity method (parent-only presentation allowed; use equity method accounting for subsidiaries)
- Variable interest entities will not be consolidated (disclosure of the relationship); can I get an Amen?
- No assessment of long-lived assets for impairment
- Going concern assessment required by management (this assessment is not required by GAAP – yet)
- Revenue recognition is principles-based (disclose how you recognize revenue); percentage-of-completion is allowable for contractors
- Stock-based compensation not booked as a liability (disclosure only)
- Defined benefit plan liabilities can be recognized using contribution payable method (record current pension plan payments not made; no projected benefit obligation liability required)
- Disclosure requirements are greatly simplified
Can’t I just continue issuing tax-basis financial statements?
Yes. But tax-basis statements do not incorporate some of the more traditional accounting concepts that FRF for SME does.
How will the use of FRF for SME change the peer review process?
No change; FRF for SME is just another OCBOA – like tax-basis or modified-cash basis.
Does the AICPA offer any implementation tools?
Yes. Click here for toolkits.
How About You?
Will you and your firm use FRF for SME? Do you like it (or dislike it)?